Arab Spring (December 17, 2010 – present) – a revolutionary wave of demonstrations and protests in the Arab world that began Friday, December 17, 2010. In December 2010, protests began in Tunisia and Algeria. On January 14, 2011, the President of Tunisia, Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, resigned after 23 years as President. On January 25, 2011, protests against President Hosni Mubarak began in Egypt. Mubarak resigned on February 11, 2011. Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood won an Egyptian presidential election in 2012. In November 2012, protests against Morsi began, intensifying in June 2013. On July 3, 2013, the Egyptian military ousted Morsi in a coup d’état. Post-coup violence in Egypt continues until today. Protests against Muammar Gaddafi’s 42-year-rule then began in Libya, later developing into a nationwide uprising, and, eventually, a civil war. Gaddafi was ousted from power on August 23, 2011, and was killed on October 20, 2011. At the same time, protests started across numerous other Arab countries, including Yemen, Jordan, Sudan, and Saudi Arabia. On March 15, 2011, protests against President Bashar al-Assad’s rule began in Syria. In April 2011, the uprising intensified, and the Syrian Army was deployed by the government to quell the popular uprising. In 2012, the International Committee of the Red Cross declared that the Syrian conflict had become a civil war, and fighting between the regime forces and the opposition intensified. The Syrian civil war continues today.